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Who Was Nelson Mandela? (Who Was?) / Meg Belviso & Pamela D. Pollack
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Who Was Nelson Mandela? (Who Was?)Who Was Nelson Mandela? (Who Was?)
Meg Belviso Pamela D. Pollack Stephen Marchesi

Grosset & Dunlap 2014-01-09
売り上げランキング : 26364

by G-Tools



Once black kings had ruled South Africa. Then white settlers came from Europe. They grabbed land for themselves and took control of the coundry. By the late 1800s, black South Africans had no voice in the government.



In 1647 a Dutch ship wrecked on the southwest coast. The surviving sailors liked the area so much, they stayed and built a fort. So many Dutch came as settlers, they pushed the naive people off their lands. The Dutch formed their own colony, a community in africa under Dutch rule.


"When the Europeans came to Africa," the tribal elders said, "they had the Bible and we had the land. They said, 'Let us pray.' We closed our eyes. When we opened them, we had the Bible and they had the land.


The government of South Africa started a cruel system of segregation, a way of keeping people of different races apart. In English the word for this system meant "apartness." In Afrikaans, the language of Dutch South Africans, it was called apartheid.


A black person was forbidden from shaking hands with a white person. Black people had to address whites formally, either "mister" and "miss" or "sir" and "ma'am," while white people called blacks only by their first names. On the road, white drivers even had the right-of-way at all intersections!


By the time the shooting stopped, sixty-nine people lay dead or dying, and another 180 were wounded seriously, including thirty-one women and nineteen children. Most of the dead were shot in the back in their attempt to escape the police.

On March 21, 1960の出来事

Mandela was led to the cell that would be his home for the next eighteen years. It was eight feet wide and weven feet long, lit by a single forty-watt lightbulb. The bulb stayed on day and night. Mandela could walk across the room in three steps.There was a mat for sleeping and three blankets so thin he could see through them. His tiolet was a small iron bucket.


Winnie Mandela
Winnie Mandela shared her husband's commitment to ending apartheid. During the years Nelson spent in prison, Winnie was often jailed, beaten, and harassed. This treatment left her angry and made her see violence as an acceptable way of dealing with enemies.


He studied law through the mail. He learned Afrikaner history and language. The darkest time for him in prison was when he was forbidden to study. This lasted four years. But Nelson was determined, and he passed his intermediate law exams when he was forty-five years old.


A group in the Soweto Township organized a protest. Ten thousand students participated. Some were only six years old. Yet the police opened fire on them. The township of Soweto became a battleground. Once again dead bodies filled the streets, many of them children. Their parents joined the fight. The fire of lit in Soweto spread to other townships. The riots went on for sixteen months before they were crushed. Nearly one thousand people died and 5,980 were arrested. The police did not lose a single man.


On February 11, 1990, at 4:15 p.m., Nelson Mandela stepped out of prison. He was seventy-one years old, and had spent ten thousand days behind bars. Outside Cape Town city Hall fifty thousand people gathered to hear him speak. He chanted, "Amandle!" ("Power!") which meants "The power is ours!"