英語で読書♪簡単な本を中心に洋書での読書を楽しんでいます。映画の感想や旅行の記録などもアップしています。楽しくなる情報を共有できますように♪
The Mystery of the Periodic Table (Living History Library) / Benjamin, Ph.D. Wiker Jeanne Bendick Ted Schluenderfritz
2016年10月29日 (土) | 編集 |
The Mystery of the Periodic Table (Living History Library)The Mystery of the Periodic Table (Living History Library)
Benjamin, Ph.D. Wiker Jeanne Bendick Ted Schluenderfritz

Bethlehem Books 2003-05
売り上げランキング : 78544

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by G-Tools

YL:6
語数:28,452

子供向きにやさしく書かれた化学史の本。
Periodic table周期表が作られるまでの
人々の奮闘の記録。

すごく面白かったです!

化学史を最初から学んだことが
ほとんどなかったと思うので、
好奇心をかきたてられました。

フロギストン説のところで、
こういう風に間違っていたんです、
というのがややこしくて、読みにくかったですが、
あまりに面白くて、乏しい化学の知識を
思い出しつつ読了。

この本のおかげで、
ひさしぶりに英語の読書を
細々と再開することが出来ました。

こういう感じの本がいっぱい見つかれば、
もっと英語での読書も進むのになあ。

歴史って面白いですが、征服と政治、
という血なまぐさいことも多いですが、
化学史とか発見の歴史って
純粋に人間の挑戦で、
こんなに面白いものなんですね。

化学について知っていると
英語がさくさく読めると思いますが、
あまり知らなくても最後に基本的な用語について、
Glossaryにまとまっているので、楽しめると思います。

あ、いくつかの法則はややこしくて
ウィキペディアで日本語で確認しながら
読みました。^^;

法則がある程度理解出来てから
英文を読むと分かりやすかったです。
知らないことを英語で読むのって
難しいですよね。
まだまだだなあ。

★以下引用メモ
vaporizing (using the heat of a fire) or evaporating (using the heat of the sun)
245/1539
こんな違いがあるんですね。

Alchemy could not be transformed into chemistry until the efforts of the alchemists were turned to an examination of air.
296/1539

Today, we understand gas to be one of the four possible states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.
(中略)
(Plasma, the fourth state, consisting of charged gaseous particles, does not naturally exist on earth, except in lightning.)
325/1539
プラズマってそうなんだ。

Boyle found out, through many experiments, that the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure. (“Inversely proportional” simply means that as one increases, the other decreases in the same way.) This relationship is now called “Boyle’s Law.”
404/1539
ボイルの法則(英: Boyle's law)とは、一定の温度の下での気体の体積が圧力に逆比例することを主張する法則
ウィキペディア

Sometimes a clearly defined error is the only way to discover the truth.
440/1539

He found French gunpowder to be the most poorly made in Europe. Under his direction it became the best. He tried to bring about a better supply of water to Paris, and advocated the use of fire hydrants as well. He called for reforms of the prisons, and for the government to pay for life insurance for the poor. He tried to help the farmers by showing them better methods of cultivating their land.
608/1539
He とは質量保存の法則を発見、酸素の命名、フロギストン説を打破したことから「近代化学の父」と称されるアントワーヌ・ラヴォアジエ (Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier)
ウィキペディア

If you read a textbook of chemistry written prior to the publication of Lavoisier’s Elementary Treatise on Chemistry, it would make no sense
681/1539
とまで言われるわけですね。
それなのに。。。

An element is the last point which chemical analysis is capable of reaching. If it cannot be taken apart by andy further chemical analysis, it is an element; if it can, it is not an element but a chemical compound. Water is not an element, but oxygen and hydrogen are.
700/1539

“It required only a moment to sever his head, and probably one hundred years will not suffice to produce another like it.”
707/1539
「彼の頭を切り落とすのは一瞬だが、彼と同じ頭脳を持つものが現れるには100年かかるだろう」

he became so angry while discussing Berzelius’ symbols with a visitor that he had a stroke!
908/1539
heとはジョン・ドルトン(John Dalton)
「自らが先天色覚異常であることを発見したことによって、ドルトニズムの語源」となった人でもあるんですね。
ウィキペディア
daltonism 先天色覚異常
イェンス・ヤコブ・ベルセリウス(Jöns Jacob Berzelius)

The more popular name of nitrous oxide? Laughing gas.
926/1539
nitrous oxide亜酸化窒素

He shouted the answer. But no one heard him. In fact, no one recognized the importance of his answer until 1860, almost fifty years later, when chemists were so fed up with all the problems and confusions plaguing chemistry that they called an international meeting. There, another Italian, Stanislao Cannizzaro (1826 – 1910), who did see the significance of Avogadro’s answer, handed out a short pamphlet explaining it to the other chemists.
“Ahh,” they said, “now we see!”
(中略)
Some atoms travel in pairs.
1020/1539
Heとは、アメデオ・アヴォガドロ(Amedeo Avogadro)
アボガドロの法則を発見。

They have a deep down feeling that things are not just put together randomly, a strange intuition that, underneath it all, there is a conspiracy going on, a great conspiracy of order. That is why chemists started to wonder, and wonder (as Aristotle said long ago) is the beginning of all science.
1063/1539

But his mother, who supported the family after the death of her husband by operation a glass factory, saw some great spark in young Dimitrii.
1136/1539
ドミトリ・メンデレーエフのお母さん、夫亡き後、ガラス工場を経営しながら家族を支えるなんてかっこいい。
ドミトリ・イヴァノヴィチ・メンデレーエフ(Dimitrii Ivanovitch Mendeleev)元素の周期律表を作成
ウィキペディア

He discovered the order by playing cards. He wrote the properties of each element on separate cards, whether they were reactive or not reactive, or found in acids or bases, or were metals or non-metals, or combinaed with other elements in this way rather than that way. Then, he started to arrange them.
(中略)
the properties of the elements recurred periodically.
This is why it is called the Periodic Table, and why the horizontal rows are now called periods. When something recurs periodically, it repeats a pattern.
1149/1539

he was a great patriot of France he called it gallium (Ga, atomic weight 69.72), for France’s Gallic heritage.
(中略)
he called it germanium (Ge, atomic weight 72.59), for he thought his people, the Germans, were every bit as clever as the French!
1209/1539
結構国名とかで命名しているんですね。
まあ面白くするためにかなり極端に言っているとは思いますが。
ちなみに、113番目の元素ニホニウム「Nh」。
ニッポニウムという周期表から落とされた幻の元素もあったんですね。

Ar (arsenic) ヒ素

Moseley showed that the real cause of the underlying order was not atomic weight, but the number of protons which each element has.
1272/1539
proton 陽子
ヘンリー・モーズリー(Henry Moseley)

While the protons line elements up horizontally, and the electrons line things up vertically,
1348/1539

For example, a carbon (C) atom will have 6 protons, but may have only 5 neutrons. Or 6. Or 7. Or 8.
1355/1539

the atomic weights are still relative, as they were for Dalton, but not relative to the weight of hydrogen. They are all relative to the weight of an isotope of carbon, carbon 12. The atomic weight of carbon 12 is taken to be exactly 12, and everything else, including hydrogen, is given its weight relative to carbon 12. While there are 109 elements, there are over 1000 isotopes!
1363/1539
Isotope 同位体[元素]

The structure of the atom as we have pictured it is, to say the very least, enormously simplified. Real electrons, for example, are not nice little round balls flitting around perfectly round orbits. They are an odd combination of a wave and a particle, which leaps about in ways that we have great difficulties understanding.
Also, remember how astounded Mr. Rutherford was to find that the atoms, out of which every material thing in the universe is made, seem to be made mostly of empty space!
1420/1539
particle 粒子

chemists also define an “element” more exactly as all atoms with the same number of protons.
1452/1539
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