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Who Was Genghis Khan? (Who Was...?) / Nico Medina
2016年05月10日 (火) | 編集 |
Who Was Genghis Khan? (Who Was...?)
Who Was Genghis Khan? (Who Was...?)Nico Medina Andrew Thomson

Grosset & Dunlap 2014-12-04
売り上げランキング :


Amazonで詳しく見る
by G-Tools

YL:3
語数:7448

人類史上最大規模の世界帝国である
モンゴル帝国の基盤を築き上げた
チンギス・カンの生涯。

Who wasシリーズのなかでも、
物語性が強くて、
特に前半生は小説のようでした。

比較的最近再発見された資料を基に
しているとのことですが、
モンゴルでは英雄ということなので、
ここに書かれている衝撃的なエピソードは
あまり目にすることが出来ないかも。

戦歴もウィキペディアより分かりやすいです。

中央アジア、キルギスで現代でも行われている
という略奪婚については、
NHK Worldでもドキュメンタリーをやっていましたが。。

隣国から非文明国と思われ、
(The sultan considered the Mongols uncivilized. P89)

文字を持たない民族が、
(At this time, no Mongol could read or write. P69)

同時代、世界一の文明国だったというイスラムの国を亡ぼし
(At the time of the Mongol invasion,
the Muslims of Khwarizm were the richest
and most sophisticated people in the world. p96)

配下に治め、世界最大の帝国を作り上げることになった事実は、
世界七不思議のひとつとでも言えるのではないでしょうか。

◆以下引用

Eighteen years earlier, Temujin's father --- a man named Yesugei --- had kidnapped his mother from her Merkid husband. Now Temujin was grown, with a wife of his own.
p2

Yesugei was hunting with his falcon when he spotted the couple from atop a cliff. He thought Hoelun was beautiful. Yesugei already had a wife, but he decided he wanted another. He rode back to camp, returned with his brothers, and chased after the newlyweds.
Hoelun knew they could not outrun the men. She told Chiledu to run. If he was captured, she said, he would be killed. So Chiledu fled, and Yesugei took Hoelun to his clan.
This was life on the steppe: brutal, unforgiving, dramatic. It had been this way for centuries.
p8

Yesugei had just returned from fighting the Tatar tribe in the east. He named his son after a warrior he had killed: Temujin.
p9
When Temujin was eight or nine, his father decided to find him a wife.
p10

Temperatures can rise to ninety degrees in the summer, and fall to fifty below zero in the winter.
p13
90°F = 32ºC
-50°F = -45ºC

But Temujin, now twelve or thirteen years old, wanted to be the boss. He decided to kill Begter.
p17
Begter:Temujin's older half brother

To their northwest were the Merkid, who sometimes rode on reindeer.
p24
トナカイも馬のように乗りこなせるのですね。

They were poor. Because there was very little trade with foreign countries, it was easier to just attack a neighbor and steal things. Year after year, century after century, the steppe tribes attacked and raided other clans and tribes.
p25

Some say Jochi's father was not actually Temujin, but a member of the Merkid. Whatever the reason, Temujin raised Jochi as his own son.
p32

Borte became angry. She told Temujin that Jamuka had grown tired of them. They should leave Jamuka's tribe. Whoever else wished to leave could join them.
p36
女性でも妻だとそれなりに意見をいえたのでしょうか。

Before the battle, Temujin made some new rules: First, the battle would go on until the enemy was defeated once and for all. Second, any looted property would go directly to Temujin. As leader, he would divide the goods as he saw fit. Finally, Temujin decreed that if a man died in battle, his family would receive his fair share of the loot.
Steppe life had never been fair, and these new laws were revolutionary.
p50
once and for all きっぱりと、完全に

Temujin and the tribal leaders decided to execute any Tatar male taller than the axle of a wheel. Every Tatar man, and many Tatar boys, would be killed. Everyone else would become part of the Mongol tribe.
It was a brutal decision. The Tatars were all Mongols now.
p52

Eventually, Temujin and nineteen his men arrived on the muddy shores of Lake Baljuna. They came from nine different tribes. They included Christians, Buddhists, and Muslims. Some, like Temujin, worshipped the Eternal Blue Sky.
p57

When daylight broke, Temujin's soldiers formed lines of men standing side by side. The first line of men shot arrows at the Naiman troops, then made way for the next line of men with another round of arrows. This was called the "lake formation," because the men were like the waves of a lake --- as soon as one line of soldiers disappeared, another stepped forward to take their place.
p60
長篠の戦のよう。

Under the Great Law, every man between fifteen and seventy had to fight in the army. Stealing and kidnapping were forbidden. Enslavement of any Mongol was illegal. Stealing livestock was punishable by death. A "lost and found" program was started for animals found on the steppe.
p68

At this time, no Mongol could read or write. To record his Great Law, Genghis Khan established a written language for his people.
p69

Each man carried only what he needed --- flints to start fires, sewing needles, dried meat and milk paste, canteens, lassos, and arrows. Because of this, there was no need for a slow moving supply train, vulnerable to attack.
p75

almost every Mongolian family has a copy in their home.
(チンギス・カンの生涯を描いているThe secret history of the Mongolsを)
p86

Genghis Khan referred to himself as the ruler of the lands of the rising sun, and called the sultan ruler of the lands of the setting sun.
p89

He climbed his sacred mountain and prayed to the Eternal Blue Sky: "Grant me strength to exact vengeance."
vengeance [véndʒəns]復讐、報復
p91

It was not until 1989 that archaeologists and outsiders were allowed to enter the Great Taboo.
p101

But under their rule, ideas and technology from all over the globe were shared freely. Roads, bridges, and tens of thousands of schools were built. Manufacturing and trade flourished. Mongol ambassadors traveled as far as France and England. Holy men for the world's great religions were invited to debate one another before the Mongol court.
p102

sneak-sneaked/snuck-sneaked/snuck こっそり近づく、こっそり逃れる
squabble [skwάbl] けんか、口論

ジンギスカン

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