|Who Was Winston Churchill? (Who Was?)|
Ellen Labrecque Jerry Hoare
Grosset & Dunlap 2015-04-21
Amazonで詳しく見る by G-Tools
Winston's mother, Jeanette (Jennie) Jerome, was a beautiful and wealthy American. Jennie's family was in England on vacation when she ment Lord Randolph. They became engaged just days after they met.
Winston took the entrance exam for the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, a training center for future British officers. He failed twice. But Winston never gave up. He finally passed on his third try.
During one of the South African battles, Winston hepled rescue a British train that had been ambushed by Boer soldiers. He was captured and taken as a prisoner of war in Pretoria, South Africa. He spent his twenty-fifth birthday locked up. Eventually, Winston escaped through a bathroom window. After newspapers reported on his daring prison excape, Winston became famous back home in Great Britain.
Winston remained in the House of Commons as an elected official for most of the next sixty-three years. He would serve for kings and one queen, Elizabeth Ⅱ.
Winston served in the military for five and a half months, on the front lines in the trenches. He wrote to his wife asking for supplies such as thigh-high waterproof boots and a sheepskin sleeping bag.
Winston created a policy based on the principle of "first in, first out." If you had been one of the first soldiers to sign up to fight, you were one of the first allowed to go home.
In the peace treaty after the war, this land was made into new countries. The Allied Powers who had won the war helped establish Syria, Iraq, and Jordan in the Middle East.
He helped create a peace treaty that allowed Southern Ireland to become an independent country.
World War Ⅰ had left the defeated country in shambles.
He often spent one hour preparing for every inute of the speech he was about to give. If a speech was thirty minutes long, he spent nearly thirty hours working on it! But the effort was always worthwhile.
In the summer of 1940, Germany attacked Great Britain. They dropped bombs on the city of London for fifty-seven nights in a row. People slept in the subway tunnels for safety. London became a city of burned-down buildings. More than one million houses were damaged or destroyed.
Winston refused to sleep inside a protected government bunker. Although he spent his nights watching the bombings from the roof of government buildings, he returned to his home afterward. He wanted to endure these attacks in the same way that her British civilians did.
Stalled by England's refusal to quit, and backed by its allies Italy and Jaoan, Germany ended the blitz and invaded the Soviet Union instead.
blitz : 電撃、急襲、(ドイツ空軍による 1940‐41 年の)ロンドン大空襲、集中的な取り組み
His booming, gravelly voice boosted morale and gave the world hope to "keep calm and carry on." This British motto is still repeated all over the world!
On December 7, 1941, President Roosevelt's position changed after Japan attacked a US naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
In 1955, he won the Charlemagne Prize from Germany. This prize is one of the highest honors a world leader can receive.
He truly believed that success is not final and failure is not fatal; it is the courage to continue that counts.
success is not final and failure is not fatal 激動の時代、人生を過ごした人ならではの言葉で、重みがあります。
|Who Was Beatrix Potter? (Who Was?)|
Sarah Fabiny Mike Lacey
Grosset & Dunlap 2015-07-21
売り上げランキング : 14555
Amazonで詳しく見る by G-Tools
売り上げランキング : 11905
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Miss Potter IMDb
Mr. Potter introduced Beatrix to the artist John Everett Millais. She visited his studio often and had a chance to see how an artist worked and lived.
VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM
It owns the largest collection of Beatrix Potter's drawings, manuscripts, letters, and photographs in the world.
From the whiskers on mice to the fur of a rabbit to the skin of a lizard, Beatrix felt it was important to show animals exactly as they appear in nature. Their charm and realistic appearance are what still appeal to children today.
In 1905, Norman Warne proposed to her. Beatrix was almost forty years old at the time. She knew her parents would not approve. They believed Beatrix should marry someone from a higher social class. Norman and his family were tradespeople --- people who had to work for a living. But Beatrix and Norman loved each other, and Beatrix felt she had the right to make this decision herself.
Just as planned, she started earning money from the farm, as well. Beatrix had found something else that she enjoyed and was good at.
It is clear that they care for each other very much and are determined to make a life together. Beatrix was forty-seven years old and had waited a long time for this happy moment.
Fruing discovered Beatrix wasn't being paid all the money that she was owed! Frederick Warne & Co. was in trouble. And it turned out that Harold Warne had been stealing money from his own family's company. In April 1917, Harold went to prison for forgery.
Beatrix had published twenty-three best-selling books in fewer than thirty years. What an accomplishment!
On Beatrix's seventieth birthday, the Girl Guides surprised her with a special party. They came to the farm dressed as characters from her books. Beatrix was deeply touched.
|Who Was Mother Teresa? (Who Was?)|
Jim Gigliotti Nancy Harrison
Grosset & Dunlap 2015-05-05
売り上げランキング : 24636
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Mother Teresa was the headmistress at St. Mary’s --- that is why she was called “Mother.” She had taught history and geography for fifteen years.
“It was a command,” she said. “Something to be done. Something definite. I knew where I had to be.”
Drana suspected he was poisoned by political enemies, although that was never proved.
The town of Darjeeling is famous around the world for growing the tea of the same name.
Her father’s ability to speak many languages must have rubbed off on Agnes, because she learned them all quickly.
...rub off on [someone] [someone]が...の影響を受ける
A Roman Catholic nun publicly “vows” --- or pledges --- her commitment to the church. She promises to observe poverty, chastity, and obedience as part of her calling to serve God.
Mother Teresa was a cloistered nun. She had to live and work within the convert. Rarely was she allowed outside.
Gandhi’s philosophy of life was called Satyagraha --- or “True force”. Satyagraha was based on the three principles of noncooperation, nonviolence, and nonpossession.
She called leaving St. Mary’s School the most difficult thing she had ever done, “an even harder sacrifice for me than leaving my family.” She had hardly any money on her: only three rupees --- about two and a half cents!
One day, in 1952, Mother Teresa saw a woman lying in the street. Rats had eaten away part of her flesh. Her wounds were crawling with maggots. No one stopped to help her. So Mother Teresa, herself a small person, picked up the dying woman and took her to the hospital. (中略) Mother Teresa knew the woman would not survive. But she also knew that the woman didn’t deserve to die in the street like an animal.
In Albania, citizens were not free to travel in and out of the country. Mother Teresa tried to persuade the Albania government to let her sister and mother come to India. The government refused. Mother Teresa offered to go to Albania. But if she did, the government said she might not be able to return to India.
Mother Teresa believed that people of all different faiths were praying to the same God. The most important thing was to love one another. “The best conversion is to make the people love one another,” she said. “When they love one another, they come closer to God.”
In 2003, Mother Teresa was beatified by the Catholic Church.
|Who Were the Brothers Grimm? (Who Was...?)|
|Avery Reed John O'Brien |
Grosset & Dunlap 2015-08-11
売り上げランキング : 57747
Amazonで詳しく見る by G-Tools
This story shows that taking your time is better than doing something quickly. The phrase "slow and steady wins the race" comes from this fable.
Aesop’s fables の”The tortoise and the hare”から
Napoleon's brother who now ruled Kassel, hired Jacob to run the palace library.
The Grimms, however, believed that fairy tales were hidden treasures of German culture and values.
Fairy tales were about facing challenges and overcoming them.
In each country, the story had a different title and the characters had different names. It was Perrault who added the pumpkin carriage, the fairy god mother, and Cinderella's glass slipper to the story. In the German version that the Grimms found, Cinderella does not have a fairy godmother but receives help from a wishing tree that grows on her mother's grave.
Perrault was also an adviser to the king of France. He encouraged Louis XIV to create Aesop's fountain at Versailles, which included thirty-nine statues, each representing one of Aesop's fables.
One mother told Wilhelm she refused to let her children read the book because of one story. In it, children are tricked into killing their friends. Wilhelm adamantly defended the story: His own mother had told it to him as a child, and, as a result, he played with his friends more carefully.
Her death had an enormous impact on the brothers. As soon as he could, Jacob returned home to Kassel. The brothers decided never to live apart again.
German Grammar became a national best seller. In fact, it sold better than the fairy tales!
Many people knew the myths from ancient Greece and Rome. But very few knew any German myths. Instead, they thought ancient Germans were barbaric. Now, because of Jacob, people could read these ancient stories and see that ancient Germans were actually civilized people with a system of law and faith in the divine. People who study German mythology today refer to the time before 1835 as "before Grimm" and the years after 1835 as "after Grimm."
They did not think a ruler should have the power to take away the people's rights. These seven professors became known as the Gottingen Seven.
Crowds would gather outside their home and sing songs until Jacob and Wilhelm stepped out onto the balcony. The Grimms were greeted with cheers, speeches, and even gifts.
It is not easy to write an original fairy tale. Hans Christian Andersen, however, created many new fairy tales that became just as famous as the ones that had existed for hundreds of years.
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm began the first major German dictionary. Their goal was to give the history and meaning of every word used in German literature from 1500 to 1832.
After the brothers died, other German scholars worked to finish it. It wasn't until 1960 --- over one hundred years after the Grimms had started --- that the dictionary was completed. Their dictionary inspired England, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland to create dictionaries of their own.
Next to the Bible, Children's and Household Tales is still the most widely read book in Germany.
|Who Was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart? (Who Was...?)|
Yona Zeldis McDonough
Six children had come before him, so he was the baby of the family. But only Wolfgang and his big sister, Maria Anna, lived past their first birthdays. Back them when babies or young children got sick, there were no medicines like there are today. So sadly, it was common for children to die.
When Wolfie was first introduced to the empress, he ran right over and jumped on her lap. Then he gave her a big hug and lots of kisses. The empress, who was a mother was charmed.
On tour, Wolfie was often sick. Most days, he gave concerts in the early afternoon and evening. Sometimes he might give three concerts in a single day. He composed music in the morning and at night. Sometimes he stayed up all night and didn't go to sleep until dawn.
For seven weeks, Wolfie and Nannerl could not practice their music because the noise might disturb Papa. Nine-year-old Wolfie needed something to do, so he composed a symphony --- his first. It is called the Symphony in E-flat and is still performed today. Later Nannerl wrote, "I had to copy it out as I sat his side. Whilst he composed and I copied, he said to me: 'Remind me to give the horn something worthwhile to do!'
It is quite remarkable to think of a child writing a symphony. A symphony is a piece of classical music written for an orchestra, which, at that time, was made up of at least eight different instruments.
That night, Wolfie couldn't sleep. He kept hearing the music in his head. He got up and quietly searched for a pen and music paper. Then he sat down and began to write the notes he had heard. It all came back to him. Note for note, the great Miserere was down on paper. It was the first time this had ever been done outside the Pope's choir room. All his life, people would be astonished by Wolfie's ability to hear music and memorize it instantly.
Constanze and Wolfgang had six children, though only two sons, Karl Thomas and Franz Xaver, lived more than a year. Mozart taught his older son Karl Thomas to play the clavier and to sing. The whole family sang and played music together often. Sometimes, their pet bird, a starling, would join in the songs.
Mozart and Haydn became very close friends. Eventually, Mozart went on to compose many pieces of music that he dedicated to his "dear friend" Haydn. Some were piano concertos. These are pieces of music written for an orchestra with highlights for the piano. Others, eight in all, were for string quartets --- two violins, a viola, and a bass.
Despite all the praise heaped on him, Mozart never became too proud. He valued his own music but also appreciated the music of others. He knew that other composers had something to teach him. After hearing the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, he exclaimed, "Now here's something one can learn from!"
The Marriage of Figaro opened at the Grand Opera House in Vienna and was a big success. The company went on to Prague, which was then part of Bohemia and is now in the Czech Republic. The opera was an even bigger hit there. Everywhere in Prague, people were humming the music from Mozart's opera or dancing to one of its lively tunes.
On December 4, 1791, he asked his friends to join him at his bedside. Together, they sang different parts of the requiem. On December 5, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died. He was only thirty-five. The requiem remained unfinished, though the parts that he did complete are considered some of the most beautiful music he ever wrote.
After Mozart's death, Constanze married a man who became a loving stepfather to Karl Thomas and Franz Xaver.
In 2002, on the one-year anniversary of the September 11 attacks, choirs around the world sang Mozart's requiem for a span of twenty-four hours in a global effort to honor those who died.
Orchestras always have at least eight instruments, one of which must be a violin. Musical instruments are divided into four types.
Percussion instruments are instruments that are struck, such as the piano, the harpsichord, the clavier, drums, cymbals, and xylophone.
String instruments are played by vibrating strings. The violin, viola, violon-cello, and bass viol are all string instruments.
Woodwinds are played by blowing on a reed or across an opening. The flute, clarinet, oboe, English horn, saxophone, and bassoon are woodwinds.
Brass instruments such as the coronet, trumpet, French horn, trombone, and tuba are played by blowing into a circular mouthpiece.
|Who Was Jim Henson? (Who Was...?)|
|Joan Holub Nancy Harrison |
Grosset & Dunlap 2010-07-08
売り上げランキング : 140340
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He was so energetic that others caught his energy. He enjoyed and respected creative people. He didn't try to squash ideas just because they weren't his. People often stayed to work with him for years or even decades.
Don built a long roadway made of Slinky toys and hollow plastic balls for seven mice that were office pets.
Jim let his kids doodle colorful creatures on the walls of their house and always encouraged his children to be creative. The family wound up with lots of pets --- eight cats, six rabbits, two dogs, guinea pigs, and a ferret.
wind up with 結果として～になる
Inside, there was a fan to help him stay cool and a TV monitor so he could see himself. Caroll Spinney has performed as Big Bird for over forty years.
Some friends thought Jim was very much like Kermit, easygoing and good at running things. Jim thought Kermit was sometimes bolder than he was. Jim thought he was more like Rowlf. Jim always operated Kermit himself. He sang Kermit's song "Bein' Green," which became popular. It's about how being green may seem unexciting but it's really wonderful. Jim wanted all children to know they were wonderful, too.
bold [bould] 勇敢な、厚かましい
When he liked something, he might call it "lovely." If he didn't like something, he wouldn't say so. He'd say, "Interesting." Or "hmm." And he'd offer suggestions to help. He always spoke softly, and moved his hands a lot to describe something.
She was pushy and knew what she wanted --- to be famous and to marry Kermit. And she went after both of her goals, batting her eyelashes and giving karate chops. Frank Oz performed Miss Piggy. He thought that part of the reason she became so popular might have been because of the women's rights movement.
The swamp log sat on top of a big, metal tank under a pool of water on a film set. Jim was inside the tank, with a small TV between his knees to watch Kermit. He stuck both hands up through rubber sleeves to work Kermit's head and banjo-strumming arm. S pump kept Jim supplied with air, and rescue divers were nearby in case of trouble. The Muppet Movie came out in 1979 and was a big hit!
His son Brian read aloud part of a letter Jim had written for his children. It said: "Please watch out for each other and love and forgive everybody. It's a good life, enjoy it."
His daughter Cheryl read other words of her father: "When I was young, my ambition was to be one of the people who makes a difference in this world. My hope still is to leave this world a little bit better than it was when I got here."
To this day, the Muppets are beloved around the world. So is Jim Henson.
|Who Was Galileo? (Who Was...?)|
|Patricia Brennan Demuth John O'Brien |
Grosset & Dunlap 2015-02-05
売り上げランキング : 20842
Amazonで詳しく見る by G-Tools
Galileo was torn. He himself was a faithful Catholic who honored church teachings. Yet his own eyes pointed him to a different truth. This truth would put his life at stake.
at stake 賭けられて、危うくなって、問題となって
Songwriters were supposed to follow strict rules for composing. But Vincenzio questioned the rules. He even added notes to the scale!
He mocked the robes in a long, funny poem. University officials weren't laughing, though. They docked Galileo's pay!
Later Marina married another man, but that was after Galileo had moved away from Padua. All her life, she stayed strong friends with Galileo.
How then did Copernicus escape getting into the deep trouble that befell Galileo later on? By not allowing his idea to be published until 1543, when he lay on his deathbed! Copernicus wrote, "The scorn which I had to fear on account of the newness and absurdity of my opinion almost prove me to abandon a work already undertaken."
He said (correctly) there were dark spots on the sun, called sunspots. And bodies in water either floated or sank because of density, not size. (Correct again.) But what kept upsetting people the most was his idea that Earth did not stand at the center of the universe.
In 1613 he decided to place his two daughters in a convent. Virginia, age thirteen, and Livia, age twelve, would stay in the convent for the rest of their lives. Both girls became nuns when they turned sixteen.
convent (女子の)修道会、(女子の)修道院男子の修道院は monastery
Yet a great many women of the time chose the convent. There they received an education as well as the respect of Catholics.
Like all nuns, Maria Celeste spent her days in prayer, hard work, sacrifice, and study. She never went outside the convent walls. Musical like her grandfather, she directed the choir and played the organ.
“She never went outside the convent walls.”!!!
|Who Was Louis Braille? (Who Was...?)|
|Margaret Frith Robert Squier |
Grosset & Dunlap 2014-03-13
Amazonで詳しく見る by G-Tools
write in Braille 点字で書く.
Louis worked for three years on his reading and writing code. By the time he was fifteen, he had figured it out.
Today, almost two hundred years later, the whole world still uses this same system called braille. The blind have been forever grateful to Louis Braille, an unselfish, determined young man.
There is a marble plaque in honor of Louis Braille at the family home in Coupvray, France.
IN THIS HOUSE
ON JANUARY 4 1809 WAS BORN
INVENTOR OF THE SYSTEM OF
WRITING IN RAISED DOTS FOR USE
BY THE BLIND.
HE OPENED THE DOORS OF
KNOWLEDGE TO ALL THOSE
WHO CANNOT SEE.
It was called the Royal Institute for Blind Youth. It all of France, it was the only school for bind children. It had been the first of its kind in the world.
Every morning the boys went to classrooms to start their fifteen-hour day. They studied grammar, arithmetic, history, Greek, Latin, Spanish, algebra, and geography. Learning means relying on their memories. Louis soon became one of the best students in his class.
This meant that Louis only had to hear a piece to be able to play it. He played not only the cello but also the piano and later the organ.
Louis joined the school orchestra and the chorus. He played and sang as much as he could. Music would be a part of Louis's life for as long as he lived.
Louis kept talking over his ideas with his friends. It took three years before he had a "eureka" moment. He was fifteen. He thought that he should try using cells with only six dots.
Then only one finger would be needed to read the dots. And instead of cells for sounds, his cells would stand for the letters of the alphabet.
By 1842 they had made the first writing machine for the blind. It was called a raphigraphe. Now the blind could write much faster, and it was easy to use. Although Foucault designed the machine itself, he gave credit to Louis for the idea: "My new machine is nothing but the continuation of his discovery."
Louis and Pierre were ahead of their time. It wasn't until 1867 that the first workable typewtiter was produced.
|Who Was Isaac Newton? (Who Was...?)|
|Janet Pascal Tim Foley |
Grosset & Dunlap 2014-10-30
売り上げランキング : 8988
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He was jealous and unfriendly, and he lost his temper easily. He wasn't very nice person, but he was one of the greatest scientific geniuses who has ever lived.
No one thought the sickly baby would live, but he did. His father, also named Isaac, had died three months before his son's birth. He had been a well-off farmer, but he couldn't read or write --- not even enough to sign his name.
Starting in a bakery, it burned for three days. Most people managed to escape, but 80 percent of the buildings in London were ruined. Although no one knew it, the plague was carried by rats and fleas. By destroyed all the filthy old buildings where the rats lived, the fire may have helped end the plague.
1666年のロンドン大火 Great Fire of London
Newton was often so busy thinking that he would forget whether or not he had eaten. The rumor at Cambridge was that his cat got fat from the meals Newton left sitting on his table. He slept only a few hours a night and often not in his bed.
The Royal Society thought the best way to advance knowledge was to discuss ideas, so each man could build on --- or knock down --- what the others were thinking. Their motto was Nullius in verba, which means roughly, "Don't take anyone's word for it."
Clubs like the Royal Society were springing up all over in Newton's time. This period is often called the Age of Enlightenment. Enlightenment means learning the kind of important knowledge that changes the way people think. The great scholars of the time believed in working together. They wanted to deal with issues of all kinds using reason, logic, and observation --- not superstition or religion.
enlightenment 悟り、(18 世紀のヨーロッパ、特にフランスでの主義的)啓蒙運動
Newton spent even more time and energy on alchemy than he did on ordinary science. His servant reported that Newton often sat up all night in his private lab at Cambridge, bent over a roaring fire, working on mysterious experiments.
After Newton died, the Royal Society discovered he had written over a million words about alchemy. They were so embarrassed by this that they marked the papers "not fit to be printed." Newton's writings about alchemy were not published until 2004.
Newton also created his three laws of motion. He had learned the first law from Galileo. It says that if something is moving, it will keep moving until something makes it stop. If something is sitting still, it won't move until some force makes it move.
The second law shows how much force is needed to make something move or stop moving.
The final law says that, "For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction." This means that every time you push on something, it pushes back just as strongly, but in the opposite direction.
For years, counterfeiters had been clipping bits of silver off the edges of coins to make new coins. By Newton's time, much of England's money was worth less than it was supposed to be. The government had to do something. They decided on the Great Recoinage of 1696.
The Mint collected all the clipped coins and remade them into a new form of coin. These coins had ridged edges, so they were harder to fake. Newton oversaw the whole thing. He did such a good job that in 1699 he was promoted to Master of the Mint. He stayed in this position for almost thirty years, until he died.
Once the Great Recoinage was done, Newton turned his attention to catching counterfeiters.
He made himself into a kind of detective with a network of spies and informers. His greatest triumph was the capture of the clever counterfeiter named Chaloner. Newton pursued him for years and finally succeeded in having him executed.
For the next two hundred years, almost all physics had its roots in his ideas. Only at the beginning of the twentieth century did another great genius --- Albert Einstein --- discover the limits of Newton's discoveries. In day-to-day life, however, people rarely have to deal with situations where Newton's physics doesn't make sense. It's still the way we understand the world.
Whether we are riding a bicycle, catching a baseball, or dropping an apple, most of us most think of movement in terms we learned from that strange, bad-tempered, brilliant loner Isaac Newton.
|The Mystery of the Strange Notebook (The Mystery Series, Short Story 4)|